Han, B. Ecol. Ylönen, H., Kojola, T. & Viitala, J. Moyen mnémotechnique : On peut tracer la Empirical work on predation and dilution of infection is scarce, but Tengmalm’s owls probably suppress bank vole density61,62. Acad. To test our hypotheses, we used long-term trapping data over a large area, while incorporating habitat at a local patch scale. Bull. PubMed  96, 29–36 (2015). Zool. R. Soc. 6a). Landsc. 23, 35–49 (2013). They are unlikely to regulate bank vole densities and we found that the two species densities were positively related (Figs 4b and 5d). In both spring and fall, the best model (Table S1, models 1 and 2) predicting the probability of a bank vole being infected included common shrew density index and bank vole density index as predictors (Table 1, Figs 2 and 3). Also, several studies found hantavirus prevalence to increase with host density (e.g. Here, by studying the potential of common shrews and field voles to influence PUUV infection in bank voles independently, we were able to infer mechanisms and conditions that promote dilution of PUUV. Also, we included bank vole density index in the previous year as a predictor to account for delayed-density dependence27,28. 21, 1135–1150 (2006). Hyg. Scientific Reports Anim. PubMed  Lett. Oikos 107, 376–392 (2004). Google Scholar. 87, 2127–2134 (2006). Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Henttonen, H. et al. Lindkvist, M., Näslund, J., Ahlm, C. & Bucht, G. Cross-reactive and serospecific epitopes of nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses: Prospects for new diagnostic tools. The total trapping effort was 150 trap nights per plot (see refs 27 and 28 for further details). Breeding attempts were confirmed through systematic visits in spring. Ruedas, L. A. et al. PLoS ONE 10, e0134124 (2015). 39, 781–792 (2002). Natl. Liesenjohann, T. et al. Different demography of friends and strangers: an experiment on the impact of kinship and familiarity in Clethrionomys glareolus. Sci. This tool allows the calculation of the pH values of diluted bases and acids. J. Wildl. Ahti, T., Hämet-Ahti, L. & Jalas, J. Vegetation zones and their sections in northwestern Europe. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. & Viitala, J. Interspecific Competition between Small Rodents in Subarctic and Boreal Ecosystems. Each station has five snap traps placed within a 1 m radius circle. The diluted material must be thoroughly mixed to achieve the true dilution. The natural and only competent host of PUUV, i.e. Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. Population biology of infectious diseases: Part I. Fulk, G. W. The Effect of Shrews on the Space Utilization of Voles. First outbreak of Oropouche Fever reported in a non-endemic western region of the Peruvian Amazon: Molecular diagnosis and clinical characteristics. State-dependent foraging: lactating voles adjust their foraging behavior according to the presence of a potential nest predator and season. MATH  Population, Environmental and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence. J. Anim. Please insert three values, the fourth will be calculated. Kallio, E. R. et al. 8, 235–244 (2008). provided comments on the manuscript. Ecosystem disturbance is thought to particularly affect zoonotic pathogens, i.e. The negative relationship between PUUV prevalence (and number of infected bank voles) and owl decline suggests that Tengmalm’s owls may limit infection in bank vole populations. Environmental Change and Disease Dynamics: Effects of Intensive Forest Management on Puumala Hantavirus Infection in Boreal Bank Vole Populations. resource distribution and structural and physical properties would facilitate predicting PUUV dynamics in habitats where the bank vole replaces its competitors. Lond. Environ. Ecology 87, 873–879 (2006). > Calcul théorique des effets interéléments dans le cas des éléments légers. Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. 37). Oecologia 32, 141–152 (1978). refs 40 and 87), so weight (g) was also used as a predictor. The “dilution effect” implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. Here, we investigate the dilution effect in a well-studied system of a directly-transmitted zoonotic pathogen (PUUV) in boreal Sweden28,31,49,52,63. Keesing, F., Holt, R. D. & Ostfeld, R. S. Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Johnson, P. T. J., Preston, D. L., Hoverman, J. T. & Richgels, K. L. D. Biodiversity decreases disease through predictable changes in host community competence. PubMed  Recent studies have shown that the presence of common shrews influences the behavior and home range of lactating female bank voles54,56. Ecography 11, 286–292 (1988). Habitat specialist, predators, or species with a slow life history disappear from disturbed areas, while reservoir hosts tend to be habitat generalists, have fast life histories and tolerate disturbance12,13,14. Lycée Probability of PUUV infection often increases with weight, a surrogate of bank vole age (e.g. Also, the simple system with directly transmitted pathogen and few non-host small mammal species enabled us to include density indices of non-host species rather than species richness. & Eklund, U. Evol. Comment. Lafferty, K. D. & Wood, C. L. It’s a myth that protection against disease is a strong and general service of biodiversity conservation: Response to Ostfeld and Keesing. Therefore, biodiversity losses could worsen epidemics that harm humans and wildlife. Factors predicting bank vole density index were similar in spring and fall models, but the direction of the relationships differed (Table S1, models 3 and 4). It is smaller and competitively inferior than the bank vole48,65. We also included local habitat (meadows and clear-cuts, young and intermediate-aged forest and old forest) since habitat influences PUUV dynamics (e.g. Predicting High Risk for Human Hantavirus Infections, Sweden. and M.E. Dilution is a common technique in laboratories, as the stock solutions that are purchased are at very high concentrations [3]. & Hörnfeldt, B. ADS  J. Wildl. B Biol. Environ. Eccard, J. Hörnfeldt, B. Seconde This solitary small-sized insectivore can be found in most habitat types55. In subsequent analyses, PUUV infection data from 4169 bank voles in 2003–2013 was used. Acad. Crit. The probability of infection in a bank vole decreased with increasing common shrew density index (Figs 2 and 3). Plot identity and year were included as random effects. 6). Google Scholar. Ecke, F., Magnusson, M. & Hörnfeldt, B. Spatiotemporal changes in the landscape structure of forests in northern Sweden. You can choose which value you want to leave blank. J. Med. To confirm that bank voles have increased in proportion relative to other small mammals, we calculated the percentage of bank voles relative to total number of small mammals (% bank voles) in spring and fall. Cornulier, T. et al. Microbiol. Physique Chimie For vector-borne pathogens with multiple hosts, complexities may arise if an increase in vector density associated with high species diversity counteracts the dilution effect18. Google Scholar. ADS  J. Raptor Res. In disease systems where species vary in their susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often results in lower disease risk (reviewed in ref. Delayed density-dependent prevalence of sin nombre virus infection in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in central and western montana. Kallio, E. R. Prolonged survival of Puumala hantavirus outside the host: evidence for indirect transmission via the environment. Google Scholar. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis. There are two mechanisms by which non-host species, including predators, may reduce PUUV infection in bank voles (reviewed in ref. Mitchell-Jones, T., etc, Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W. et al.The Atlas of European Mammals. Je bloque à la fin de l'exercice. Concurrently, the number of infected voles per cycle was higher in the 2003–2013 time-frame compared to that in 1979–1986. The grey-shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval of coefficient estimates. Google Scholar. Korpimäki, E. Rapid Tracking of Microtine Populations by Their Avian Predators: Possible Evidence for Stabilizing Predation. > Many translated example sentences containing "effets de dilution" – English-French dictionary and search engine for English translations. 53, 461–478 (1972). J. Mammal. collected the data. In our study area in northern Sweden, small mammals have been monitored since 197126. Tengmalm’s owls nest box occupancy declined in 1980–2013. Fenn. For example, experimental work on the dilution effect is ongoing in the United States on Sin Nombre virus system (reviewed by ref. Community ecology of small mammal populations in Panama following an outbreak of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Dizney, L. & Dearing, M. D. Behavioural differences: a link between biodiversity and pathogen transmission. The drastic decline of the grey-sided vole51, driven by habitat loss52, probably released the bank vole from competition in forest habitats and allowed the latter to expand its niche (sensu50, Fig. Emerg. Experimental Evidence for Reduced Rodent Diversity Causing Increased Hantavirus Prevalence. Collège, ISSN 2045-2322 (online). Cite this article. Seconde Olsson, G. E. et al. For directly-transmitted zoonotic viruses such as hantavirus, transmission rates and disease risk are not confounded by a vector and the dilution effect depends on changes in host density or behavior20. Dis. En pleine mer, l'effet de dilution joue énormément ce qui minimise l'impact des substances chimiques [...] We found evidence for the dilution effect by a competitor (field vole) that conditionally regulated bank vole density indices thereby indirectly reducing PUUV infection and a nest predator (common shrew) that directly influenced bank vole infection probability. In meadows and clear-cuts and intermediate-aged forests in spring and in intermediate and old-aged forests in fall, bank voles and field vole density indices were positively related. In spring, bank vole density index increased as field vole density index increased in meadows and clear-cuts and intermediate-aged forests (Fig. Overall PUUV prevalence in spring (47%) was higher than in fall (17%). & Kaikusalo, A. refs 31, 40, 85 and 86, which is common in horizontally-transmitted pathogens68. Niche Expansion and Increased Maturation Rate of Clethrionomys glareolus in the Absence of Competitors. Experimental testing in large enclosures is needed to establish a direct link between behavioral and density changes in bank voles (e.g. Dis. J. Appl. In addition, the field vole affected PUUV prevalence indirectly by suppressing bank vole density index in fall in meadows and clear-cuts. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles As a response to risk, bank voles may avoid common shrews and increase time spent protecting nestlings. Spatial and temporal variation of hantavirus bank vole infection in managed forest landscapes. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31314, Environmental Science & Policy Yannick Sayer 68,530 views This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Relative to (a) common shrew density index and (b) bank vole density index. Further, Tengmalm’s owl decline in 1980–2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003–2013 compared to 1979–1986. Trans. Hörnfeldt, B., Hipkiss, T. & Eklund, U. 96, 1238–1247 (2015). Nephropathia Epidemica: Detection of Antigen in Bank Voles and Serologic Diagnosis of Human Infection. 5eme, 4a,b). Vertical black marks on the x-axis show how predictor values are distributed across predictor range, denser marks indicate a concentration of predictor values. We found that PUUV infection probability increased with bank vole density index (results). 2/ Dilution de la solution de détartrant au 1/10ème. EcoHealth 6, 250–259 (2009). The number of nest boxes checked per year varied and ranged between 275 and 50058,80. Percentage of number of bank voles out of all trapped small mammals in spring in 1971–2013. PUUV prevalence, i.e. 221-2012-1568) http://www.formas.se/. 1, t-value = 3.17, p < 0.01, dfresidual = 41) and fall (t-value = 2.03, p = 0.04, dfresidual = 41). Carver, S. et al. Hörnfeldt, B., Carlsson, B.-G., Löfgren, O. Rev. Son but est toujours de rendre une solution moins acide ou moins basique . J. Mammal. Alternatively, competition can indirectly reduce infection prevalence by reducing host density. In 1979–1986, there were 413 infected bank voles (206.5 per cycle), whereas there were 942 infected in 2003–2013 (314 per cycle). 57, 569–580 (2015). Ann. Translations in context of "effet de dilution" in French-English from Reverso Context: Ceci est communément appelé l'effet de dilution. > Effet de la dilution sur le pH Une dilution consiste à ajouter de l’eau distillée à une solution. Oecologia 67, 394–402 (1985). Oikos 45, 281–284 (1985). Scientific Reports 14, 537–551 (2014). The resulting solution is thoroughly mixed so as to ensure that all parts of the solution are identical. Tersago, K. et al. 15, 104–106 (2009). Am. refs 53, 75 and 76) to changes in transmission rates. Par Rainbow19 dans le forum Chimie Réponses: 2 Dernier message: 21/09/2014, 14h29. 11, 315–324 (2011). https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4/index.html, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Harnessing the Four Horsemen of Climate Change: A Framework for Deep Resilience, Decarbonization, and Planetary Health in Ontario, Canada, The role of ecosystems in mitigation and management of Covid-19 and other zoonoses. Tengmalm’s owl nest boxes did not entirely overlap with bank vole trapping areas. 76, 65–71 (2007). Détermination de la nature d'une solution aqueuse à partir de la mesure du pH de la solution. So we included bank vole density index as a predictor of infection probability at plot level in the analysis. Ostfeld, R. S. & Keesing, F. Biodiversity series: The function of biodiversity in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases. bank vole, field vole and grey-sided vole57, only bank vole density index increased in the 2000’s (Figure S1). Roche, B., Dobson, A. P., Guégan, J.-F. & Rohani, P. Linking community and disease ecology: the impact of biodiversity on pathogen transmission. Because field voles also alter bank vole behavior53, we expected field voles to also directly reduce PUUV infection in bank voles in meadows and clear-cuts. Proc. It is competitively superior to the bank vole and may exclude it from clear-cuts and young forests25. 100, 567–571 (2003). Dilution occurs when a company issues new stock which results in a decrease of an existing stockholder's ownership percentage of that company. 5a), when bank vole density is often highest. meadows and clear-cuts (Fig. Vertical black marks on the x-axis (rug plots) show how predictor values are distributed across predictor range, denser marks indicate a concentration of predictor values. Bonjour, j'ai un exercice sur les effets de la dilution. Infect. PUUV prevalence and infected bank vole density index in spring were higher in 2003–2013 compared to 1979–1986 (Fig. Behav. Hansson, L. Spatial Dynamics of Field Voles Microtus agrestis in Heterogeneous Landscapes. Science 340, 63–66 (2013). La masse de soluté au départ est donc la même que celle après la dilution. Correlated changes in density indices were expected due to the synchronous population fluctuations of small mammals regionally48. Competitive release of bank voles in new habitats may be associated with higher density and PUUV prevalence, especially in places where virus survival outside the host or transmission may be enhanced due to micro-habitat properties41. Hörnfeldt, B. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. 48, 148–156 (2012). Nature 280, 361–367 (1979). The dominant forest age class along the trapping line was used in the analyses and forest age was estimated by increment coring at breast height combined with visual observations. The dilution effect hypothesis suggests that diverse ecological communities limit disease spread via several mechanisms. Brummer-Korvenkontio, M. et al. J. Wildl. Oecologia 166, 713–721 (2011). Ecke, F., Christensen, P., Sandström, P. & Hörnfeldt, B. We hypothesize that both field voles and common shrews will dilute PUUV infection in bank voles through changing their movement patterns and reducing contact rates, i.e. Hanski, I. The grey-sided vole Myodes rufocanus is the main competitor of the bank vole in coniferous forests50 and has declined and locally disappeared in the early 2000’s51,52. cause a dilution effect via “encounter reduction”. Relative to (a–c) field vole density index in different habitat succession stages and relative to (d) common shrew density index. 37), we use long-term data and account for habitat-specific, seasonal and annual PUUV infection patterns. Popul. > Théorie portant sur les unités de la concentration d'une solution et la dilution d'une solution. B Biol. It is often used for simple dilutions, one in which a unit volume of a liquid material of interest is combined with an appropriate volume of a solvent liquid to achieve the desired concentration. Hardestam, J. et al. PubMed Google Scholar. We used nest box occupancy data in 1980–2013. 68, 581–588 (2002). PubMed  Model residuals were checked for patterns to investigate model fit. & Sörlin, D. Population dynamics of small mammals in relation to forest age and structural habitat factors in northern Sweden. Rev. Niklasson, B., Hörnfeldt, B., Lunkvist, Å., Björsten, S. & LeDuc, J. Temporal dynamics of Puumala virus antibody prevalence in voles and of nephropathia epidemica incidence in humans. 2. Bellavite P(1), Marzotto M(2), Olioso D(2), Moratti E(2), Conforti A(3). Distribution and habitat selection of shrews in Finland. Internet Explorer). The decline in field voles, to which climate change was suggested to contribute28,74 may further increase utilization of meadows and clear-cuts by bank voles (Fig. B Biol. J. Vector Ecol. Owls nest box occupancy (%) decreased in 1980–2013 (Fig. Google Scholar. 141, 131–134 (1980). Ecol. conceptualized the study. 65, 2079–2089 (2011). This is probably due to the influx of uninfected newborn voles into the population, which masks the increase in density-dependent transmission69. A. et al. 21, 485–497 (2006). Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Hörnfeldt, B., Christensen, P., Sandström, P. & Ecke, F. Long-term decline and local extinction of Clethrionomys rufocanus in boreal Sweden. Bank voles may reach high densities in meadows71, but interference competition from field voles limits bank vole density53 and thereby PUUV transmission. 1). There was an interaction between field vole density index and habitat in both seasons, but the direction of the relationship differed between spring and fall. Oikos 29, 581–590 (1977). Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect. 3). Math. Sci. PubMed  PLoS ONE 9 (2014). Med. Long-term decline in numbers of cyclic voles in boreal Sweden: analysis and presentation of hypotheses. Dis. 4eme, Data on Tengmalm’s owls breeding was collected since 1980 from nest boxes placed in trees at approximately 1 km interval in an area partially overlapping with the small mammal monitoring area57. How to cite this article: Khalil, H. et al. Tersago, K. et al. Ecology 83, 1713–1726 (2002). R Core Team R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Johnson, P. T. J., Ostfeld, R. S. & Keesing, F. Frontiers in research on biodiversity and disease. Baillie, J. E. M., Hilton Taylor, C., Stuart, S. N. (eds). Sci. Ostfeld, R. S. & Holt, R. D. Are predators good for your health? Identification of Landscape Elements Related to Local Declines of a Boreal Grey-sided Vole Population. analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. (Princeton University Press, 2010). Virus Res. Candidate fixed effects were bank vole density index, common shrew density index, field vole density index, bank vole weight (g) and habitat. (2019). 112, 1092–1098 (2004). meadows and clear-cuts52. Lond. Delayed Density Dependence as a Determinant of Vole Cycles. The time series of percentage of bank voles showed temporal autocorrelation in both seasons. Mills, J. N. Biodiversity loss and emerging infectious disease: An example from the rodent-borne hemorrhagic fevers. This video is unavailable. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. We tested whether PUUV infection probability in bank voles in spring and fall (2003–2013) at local plot level was affected by common shrew and field vole density indices. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Magnusson, M. et al. Is the Long-term Decline of Boreal Owls in Sweden Caused by Avoidance of Old Boxes? Google Scholar. Natl. H.K., B.H. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003–2013) in northern Sweden. Peixoto, I. D. & Abramson, G. The Effect of Biodiversity on the Hantavirus Epizootic. Trends Ecol. While the grey-sided and field voles declined52, bank voles increased during the last decade (Figure S1), suggesting that drivers causing the decline in other vole species have not equally affected bank vole populations (Fig. 69, 747–754 (2015). (Poyser, 1999). Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect. Hantavirus infections in fluctuating host populations: the role of maternal antibodies. 33, 231–242 (2007). Since total host density remains constant, vector density is unlikely to increase when diversity increases19. PUUV is directly and horizontally transmitted within bank vole populations and viral particles are shed in the saliva, feces and urine30. Our results provide evidence for the importance of functional diversity in a given community in reducing pathogen infection in hosts. & Jones, J. H. A meta-analysis suggesting that the relationship between biodiversity and risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission is idiosyncratic. Our results are based on long-term time series collected systematically, over a large area with plots 2.5 km apart. capable of furthering the infection cycle through shedding of viral particles upon infection22, is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus)23. Voutilainen, L. et al. 4eme, 26, 349–355 (1989).

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